Medalla Copley

Summary

Medalla Copley
Joseph Lister, Copley Medal (gold), 1902 Wellcome M0007837.jpg
La Medalla Copley en 1905.
Premio a ciencias físicas, biológicas
Otorgado por Real Sociedad de Londres
Ubicación Reino UnidoBandera de Reino Unido Reino Unido
Historia
Primera entrega 1731
Medalla Copley Sitio web oficial

La Medalla Copley es un premio que otorga anualmente la Real Sociedad de Londres a una persona física como reconocimiento al trabajo científico por sus logros sobresalientes en las ciencias físicas o biológicas. Es el galardón más antiguo concedido por una institución académica, ya que la primera medalla se concedió en 1731.

Historia

El premio se creó tras el legado póstumo realizado a la Real Sociedad de Londres en 1709, por Godfrey Copley, próspero terrateniente de Sprotbrough, cerca de Doncaster, miembro por elección de la Real Sociedad de Londres desde 1691. El monto ascendía a 100 £, y el interés sobre el mismo se utilizaría para la realización de experimentos durante una serie de años.

Las condiciones de la medalla han variado varias veces a lo largo del tiempo. En 1736 se acordó conceder una medalla por valor de 5 £, ya fuera para el descubrimiento científico más importante o para el mayor aporte experimental, norma que se siguió hasta 1831, cuando las condiciones se modificaron de modo que la medalla se concediera al autor de la investigación que el Consejo de la Real Sociedad de Londres decidiera por mayoría que fuera el mayor merecedor de dicho honor. Joseph William Copley realizó en 1881 una segunda donación por valor de 1.666 £, 13 s y 4 d, de la que se destinaría la mitad de los intereses que rindieran dicha cantidad a cubrir los costos del galardón.

En su formato actual el galardón se concede anualmente y consiste en una medalla de plata dorada y un premio en metálico de 5.000 £. Los premiados, que en años consecutivos se alternan entre las ciencias físicas y biológicas, son elegidos por el Consejo de la Real Sociedad de Londres, a propuesta de los respectivos Comité de Premios en Ciencias Físicas y Comité de Premios en Ciencias Biológicas. El premio está abierto a los ciudadanos de un país de la Mancomunidad de Naciones o de la República de Irlanda, o de personas que habitualmente residan y trabajen en un país de la Mancomunidad de Naciones o en la República de Irlanda durante el período mínimo de los tres años inmediatamente anteriores a la que fecha de su propuesta. No hay limitaciones para el período en él se hayan realizado los logros de investigación y se puede conceder más de una vez a la misma persona. Las nominaciones son válidas durante cinco años, y el candidato no puede ser renominado hasta un año después de que haya expirado su nominación.[1]

La Real Sociedad de Londres también instituyó en 1825 y 1965 la Medalla Real, de manera independiente a la Medalla Copley, que en sus tres modalidades galardona anualmente las contribuciones más importantes en las ciencias físicas (1825), en las ciencias biológicas (1825) y en las ciencias aplicadas (1965).[2]​ Fueron varios los galardonados que han recibido varias veces la medalla: John Theophilus Desaguliers (1734, 1736 y 1741), Stephen Gray (1731 y 1732), John Canton (1751 y 1764). Y en varias ocasiones el galardón fue compartido: por tres medallistas (en 1766) y por dos (en 1783, 1791, 1798, 1821, 1825, 1827, 1832, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1840 y 2010). Y en veintiuna ocasiones no se entregó.

Galardonados

Galardonados con la Medalla Copley
º
Imagen Año Distinguido Nacionalidad Profesión Notas Ref.
Image of nothing.svg 1731 Stephen Gray InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra físico y científico natural «For his new Electrical Experiments: – as an encouragement to him for the readiness he has always shown in obliging the Society with his discoveries and improvements in this part of Natural Knowledge.» [3]
Image of nothing.svg 1732 Stephen Gray (2.ª) InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Físico y científico natural «For the Experiments he made for the year 1732.» [3]
1733 No entregada
John Theophilus Desaguliers.jpg 1734 John Theophilus Desaguliers Bandera de Francia Francia filósofo natural «In consideration of his several Experiments performed before the Society.» [4]
1735 No entregada
John Theophilus Desaguliers.jpg 1736 John Theophilus Desaguliers (2.ª) Bandera de Francia Francia filósofo natural «For his experiments made during the year.» [4]
Belchier John 1706-1785.png 1737 John Belchier Reino UnidoBandera de Reino Unido Reino Unido Cirujano «For his Experiment to show the property of a Diet of Madder Root in dyeing the Bones of living animals of a red colour.» [5]
Image of nothing.svg 1738 James Valoue InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Relojero «For his invention of an Engine for driving the Piles to make a Foundation for the Bridge to be erected at Westminster, the Model whereof had been shown to the Society.»
Stephen Hales.jpg 1739 Stephen Hales InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Clérigo con contribuciones en medicina, fisiología, química y botánica «For his Experiments towards the Discovery of Medicines for dissolving the Stone; and Preservatives for keeping Meat in long voyages at Sea.» [6]
Image of nothing.svg 1740 Alexander Stuart EscociaBandera de Escocia Escocia filósofo natural y médico «For his Lectures on Muscular Motion. As a further addition for his services to the Society in the care and pains he has taken therein.» [7]
John Theophilus Desaguliers.jpg 1741 John Theophilus Desaguliers (3.ª) Bandera de Francia Francia filósofo natural «For his Experiments towards the discovery of the properties of Electricity. As an addition to his allowance (as Curator) for the present year.» [4]
Image of nothing.svg 1742 Christopher Middleton InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Oficial naval y navegante «For the communication of his Observations in the attempt of discovering a North-West passage to the East Indies through Hudsons Bay.» [8]
Abraham Trembley.jpg 1743 Abraham Trembley SuizaFlag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Suiza naturalista «For his Experiments on the Polypus.»
HenryBaker16981774.jpg 1744 Henry Baker InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra naturalista «For his curious Experiments relating to the Crystallization or Configuration of the minute particles of Saline Bodies dissolved in a menstruum.» [9]
William Watson.jpg 1745 William Watson InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra naturalista, médico y físico «On account of the surprising discoveries in the phenomena of Electricity, exhibited in his late Experiments.» [10]
Image of nothing.svg 1746 Benjamin Robins InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Científico, matemático e ingeniero militar «On account of his curious Experiments for showing the resistance of the Air, and his rules for establishing his doctrine thereon for the motion of Projectiles.» [11]
Gowin Knight from Science & Society 10198868.jpg 1747 Gowin Knight InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra científico e inventor «On account of several very curious Experiments exhibited by him, both with Natural and Artificial Magnets.» [12]
James Bradley by Thomas Hudson.jpg 1748 James Bradley InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Astrónomo, nombrado Astrónomo Real «On account of his very curious and wonderful discoveries in the apparent motion of the Fixed Stars, and the causes of such apparent motion.» [13]
John Harrison Uhrmacher.jpg 1749 John Harrison InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Relojero «On account of those very curious Instruments, invented and made by him, for the exact mensuration of Time.» [14]
Edwards George 1693 1773.jpg 1750 George Edwards InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra naturalista y ornitólogo «On account of a very curious Book lately published by him, and intiyled, A Natural History of Birds, &c. – containing the Figures elegantly drawn, and illuminated in their proper colours, of 209 different Birds, and about 20 very rare Quadrupeds, Serpents, Fishes, and Insects.» [15]
John Canton from NPG.jpg 1751 John Canton InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra físico «On account of his communicating to the Society, and exhibiting before them, his curious method of making Artificial Magnets without the use of Natural ones.» [16]
John Pringle.jpg 1752 John Pringle EscociaBandera de Escocia Escocia Médico, llamado el «padre de la medicina militar» «On account of his very curious and useful Experiments and Observations on Septic and Anti-septic Substances, communicated to the Society.» [17]
BenFranklinDuplessis.jpg 1753 Benjamin Franklin Bandera de Estados Unidos Estados Unidos político, polímata, científico e inventor «On account of his curious Experiments and Observations on Electricity.» [18]
Image of nothing.svg 1754 William Lewis InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Químico y físico «For the many Experiments made by him on Platina, which tend to the discovery of the sophistication of gold: – which he would have entirely completed, but was obliged to put a stop to his further enquiries for want of materials.» [19]
John Huxham1.jpg 1755 John Huxham InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Médico cirujano y escritor «For his many useful Experiments on Antimony, of which an account had been read to the Society.» [20]
1756 No entregada
Image of nothing.svg 1757 Charles Cavendish, Lord Cavendish InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra noble, político y científico «On account of his very curious and useful invention of making Thermometers, showing respectively the greatest degrees of heat and cold which have happened at any time during the absence of the observer.» [12]
John Dollond, by Benjamin Wilson.jpg 1758 John Dollond InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra óptico «On account of his curious Experiments and Discoveries concerning the different refrangibility of the Rays of Light, communicated to the Society.» [21]
John Smeaton.jpg 1759 John Smeaton InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra ingeniero civil «On account of his curious Experiments concerning Water-wheels and Wind-mill Sails, communicated to the Society. For his experimental enquiry concerning the powers of water and wind in the moving of Mills.» [22]
Benjamin Wilson, by Benjamin Wilson.jpg 1760 Benjamin Wilson InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Pintor, impresor y científico «For his many curious Experiments in Electricity, communicated to the Society within the year.» [23]
1761 No entregada
1762 No entregada
1763 No entregada
John Canton from NPG.jpg 1764 John Canton (2.ª) InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra físico «For his very ingenious and elegant Experiments in the Air Pump and Condensing Engine, to prove the Compressibility of Water, and some other Fluids.» [16]
1765 No entregada
Portrait of biographer William Brownrigg Wellcome L0000279.jpg
Cavendish Henry signature.jpg
1766 William Brownrigg

Edward Delaval

Henry Cavendish
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra

InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra

InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra
Médico y científico

Físico natural

físico y químico
«For an experimental enquiry into the Mineral Elastic Spirit, or Air, contained in Spa-Water; as well as into the Mephitic qualities of this Spirit». (Brownrigg)
«For his Experiments and Observations on the agreement between the specific gravities of the several Metals, and their colours when united to glass, as well as those of their other preparations». (Delaval)
«For his Paper communicated this present year, containing his Experiments relating to Fixed Air». (Cavendish)
[24]
Image of nothing.svg 1767 John Ellis Bandera de Irlanda Irlanda Naturalista «For his Papers of the year 1767, On the animal nature of the Genus of Zoophytes called Corallina, and the Actinia Sociata, or Clustered Animal Flower, lately found on the sea coasts of the new-ceded Islands.» [25]
Image of nothing.svg 1768 Peter Woulfe Bandera de Irlanda Irlanda químico y mineralogista «For his Experiments on the Distillation of Acids, Volatile Alkalies, and other substances.» [26]
William Hewson b1739.jpg 1769 William Hewson InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra cirujano «For his Two Papers, entitled, An Account of the Lymphatic System in Amphibious Animals, – and An Account of the Lymphatic System in Fish.»
Sir William Hamilton by David Allan.jpg 1770 William Hamilton EscociaBandera de Escocia Escocia diplomático, anticuario, arqueólogo y vulcanista. «For his Paper, entitled, An Account of a Journey to Mount Etna.» [27]
Image of nothing.svg 1771 Matthew Raper Reino UnidoBandera de Reino Unido Reino Unido Astrónomo, matemático «For his paper entitled, An Enquiry into the value of ancient Greek and Roman Money.»
Priestley.jpg 1772 Joseph Priestley InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra científico y teólogo «On account of the many curious and useful Experiments contained in his observations.»
Image of nothing.svg 1773 John Walsh Reino UnidoBandera de Reino Unido Reino Unido Científico y naturalista «For his Paper on the Torpedo.» [28]
1774 No entregada
Maskelyne Nevil.jpg 1775 Nevil Maskelyne InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Astrónomo «In consideration of his curious and laborious Observations on the Attraction of Mountains, made in Scotland, – on Schehallien.» [29]
Captainjamescookportrait.jpg 1776 James Cook InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra navegante, explorador, cartógrafo «For his Paper, giving an account of the method he had taken to preserve the health of the crew of H.M. Ship the Resolution, during her late voyage round the world. Whose communication to the Society was of such importance to the public.» [30]
J.Mudge.jpg 1777 John Mudge InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Médico y constructor amateur de espejos de telescopio «On account of his valuable Paper containing directions for making the best Composition for the metals of Reflecting Telescopes; together with a description of the process for grinding, polishing, and giving the best speculum the true parabolic form.»
Charles Hutton.jpg 1778 Charles Hutton InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Matemático «For his paper, entitled, The force of Fired Gunpowder, and the initial velocity of Cannon Balls, determined by Experiments.» [31]
1779 No entregada
Samuel-Vince.jpg 1780 Samuel Vince InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Clérigo, matemático y astrónomo «For his paper, entitled, An investigation of the Principles of Progressive and Rotatory Motion, printed in the Philosophical Transactions.» [32]
William Herschel01.jpg 1781 William Herschel AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania
(británico)
Astrónomo y músico «For the Communication of his Discovery of a new and singular Star; a discovery which does him particular honour, as, in all probability, this star has been for many years, perhaps ages, within the bounds of astronomic vision, and yet till now, eluded the most diligent researches of other observers.» [33]
Kirwan Richard portrait.jpg 1782 Richard Kirwan Bandera de Irlanda Irlanda Geólogo y químico «As a reward for the merit of his labours in the science of Chemistry. For his chemical analyses of Salts.» [32]
Goodricke John.jpg
Image of nothing.svg
1783 John Goodricke

Thomas Hutchins
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra

Países BajosFlag of the Netherlands.svg Países Bajos
(británico)
Astrónomo

Médico y naturalista
«For his discovery of the Period of the Variation of Light in the Star Algol. (Goodricke)"

"For his Experiments to ascertain the point of Mercurial Congelation. (Hutchins)"

[32]
Edwardwaring.jpg 1784 Edward Waring InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Matemático «For his Mathematical Communications to the Society. For his Paper On the Summation of Series, whose general term is a determinate function of z the distance from the first term of the series.» [34]
Image of nothing.svg 1785 William Roy EscociaBandera de Escocia Escocia Ingeniero militar, topógrafo y anticuario «For his Measurement of a Base on Hounslow Heath.» [35]
1786 No entregada
John Hunter by John Jackson.jpg 1787 John Hunter EscociaBandera de Escocia Escocia cirujano y anatomista «For his three Papers, – On the Ovaria, On the identity of the dog, wolf, and jackall species, and On the anatomy of Whales, printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1787.» [36]
Blagden Charles.jpg 1788 Charles Blagden InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra físico y químico «For his two Papers on Congelation, printed in the last (78th) volume of the Philosophical transactions.» [37]
Thomas Lawrence - Portrait of William Morgan (1750-1833).jpg 1789 William Morgan GalesBandera de Gales Gales Médico, físico y estatidistico «For his two Papers on the values of Reversions and Survivorships, printed in the two last volumes of the Philosophical Transactions.» [38]
1790 No entregada
James Rennel.png
Jean-André Deluc.jpg
1791 James Rennell

Jean-André Deluc
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra

SuizaFlag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Suiza
Geógrafo, historiador y pionero de oceanografía

Geólogo y meteorólogo
«For his Paper on the Rate of Travelling as performed by Camels, printed in the last (81st) volume of the Philosophical Transactions». (Rennell)
«For his Improvements in Hygrometry». (De Luc)
[39]
Benjamin Thompson.jpg 1792 Benjamin Thompson Reino UnidoBandera de Reino Unido Reino Unido físico e inventor (británico nacido en Estados Unidos) «For his various Papers on the Properties and Communication of Heat.» [40]
1793 No entregada
Volta A.jpg 1794 Alessandro Volta ItaliaFlag of Italy.svg Italia Químico y físico «For his several Communications explanatory of certain Experiments published by Professor Galvani.» [39]
Jesse.Ramsden.jpg 1795 Jesse Ramsden InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra matemático, astrónomo y constructor de instrumentos «For his various inventions and improvements in the construction of the Instruments for the Trigonometrical measurements carried on by the late Major General Roy, and by Lieut. Col. Williams and his associates.» [41]
Image of nothing.svg 1796 George Atwood InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Físico y matemático «For his Paper on the construction and analysis of geometrical propositions determining the positions assumed by homogeneal bodies which float freely, and at rest; and also determining the Stability of Ships and other floating bodies.» [42]
1797 No entregada
Catalogue of portraits, miniatures &c. - in the possession of Cecil George Savile, 4th Earl of Liverpool, Lord Steward, &c (1905) (14760258041).jpg
Charles Hatchett 2.jpg
1798 George Shuckburgh-Evelyn

Charles Hatchett
Bandera de Irlanda Irlanda

InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra
Político, matemático y astrónomo

Mineralogista y químico analítico
«For his various Communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions». (Evelyn)
«For his Chemical Communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions». (Hatchett)
[43]
John Hellins.jpeg 1799 John Hellins InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Matemático, astrónomo «For his improved Solution of a problem in Physical Astronomy, &c. printed in the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1798; and his other Mathematical Papers.» [44]
Image of nothing.svg 1800 Edward Howard InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Militar «For his Paper on a New Fulminating Mercury.» [45]
Astley Paston Cooper 4.jpg 1801 Astley Paston Cooper InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Cirujano y anatomista «For his Papers – on the effects which take place from the destruction of the Membrana Tympani of the Ear; with an account of an operation for the removal of a particular species of Deafness.» [46]
Wollaston William Hyde Jackson color.jpg 1802 William Hyde Wollaston InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Físico y químico «For his various Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions.» [47]
Chenevix Richard.jpg 1803 Richard Chenevix Bandera de Irlanda Irlanda Químico, mineralogista «For his various Chemical Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions.» [48]
Image of nothing.svg 1804 Smithson Tennant InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra químico «For his various Chemical Discoveries communicated to the Society, and printed in several volumes of the Philosophical Transactions.» [49]
Sir Humphry Davy, Bt by Thomas Phillips.jpg 1805 Humphry Davy InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Químico «For his various Communications published in the Philosophical Transactions.» [50]
Thomas Andrew Knight (1758–1838).jpg 1806 Thomas Andrew Knight InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Horticultor y botánico «For his various Papers on Vegetation, printed in the Philosophical Transactions.» [51]
Sir Everard Home 1756–1832.jpg 1807 Everard Home InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra cirujano «For his various Papers on Anatomy and Physiology, printed in the Philosophical Transactions.»
William Henry.jpg 1808 William Henry InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Químico «For his various papers communicated to the society, and printed in the Philosophical Transactions.»
Edward Troughton.jpeg 1809 Edward Troughton InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra fabricante de instrumental «For the Account of his Method of dividing Astronomical Instruments, printed in the last volume of the Philosophical Transactions.» [52]
1810 No entregada
Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 1st Bt 1856.jpg 1811 Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Fisiólogo y cirujano «For his Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions. On the influence of the Brain on the action of the Heart, and the generation of Animal Heat; and on the different modes in which death is brought on by certain Vegetable Poisons.» [53]
1812 No entregada
William Thomas Brande 1855.jpg 1813 William Thomas Brande InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Químico «For his Communications concerning the Alcohol contained in Fermented Liquors and other Papers, printed in the Philosophical Transactions.»
Image of nothing.svg 1814 James Ivory EscociaBandera de Escocia Escocia Matemático «For his various Mathematical Contributions printed in the Philosophical Transactions.» [54]
David-Brewster.jpg 1815 David Brewster EscociaBandera de Escocia Escocia naturalista, inventor y escritor. «For his Paper on the Polarization of Light by Reflection from Transparent Bodies.» [55]
1816 No entregada
Henry Kater00.jpg 1817 Henry Kater InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Físico «For his Experiments on the Pendulum.» [56]
Robert Seppings (1767-1840), by William Bradley.jpg 1818 Robert Seppings InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Arquitecto naval «For his Papers on the construction of Ships of War, printed in the Philosophical Transactions.»
1819 No entregada
Hans Christian Ørsted daguerreotype.jpg 1820 Hans Christian Orsted DinamarcaBandera de Dinamarca Dinamarca físico y químico «For his Electro-magnetic Discoveries.» [57]
Sir Edward Sabine, 1788–1883 (cropped).png
Julia Margaret Cameron - John Herschel (Metropolitan Museum of Art copy, restored) levels.jpg
1821 Edward Sabine

John Herschel
Bandera de Irlanda Irlanda

InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra
Astrónomo, geofísico, botánico, ornitólogo y explorador

Matemático y astrónomo
«For his various Communications to the Royal Society relating to his researches made in the late Expedition to the Arctic Regions.» (Sabine)
«For his Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions.»(Herschel)
[58]
William Buckland c1845.jpg 1822 William Buckland InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Naturalista, geólogo y paleontólogo «For his Paper on the Fossil Teeth and Bones discovered in a Cave at Kirkdale.» [59]
Image of nothing.svg 1823 John Pond InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Astrónomo «For his various Communications to the Royal Society.»
Image of nothing.svg 1824 John Brinkley InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Astrónomo «For his various Communications to the Royal Society.» [60]
Arago Francois portrait.jpg
Peter Barlow(math).jpg
1825 François Arago
Peter Barlow
Bandera de Francia Francia

InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra
Matemático, físico y astrónomo

Matemático y físico
«For the Discovery of the Magnetic Properties of substances not containing Iron. For the Discovery of the power of various bodies, principally metallic, to receive magnetic impressions, in the same, though in a more evanescent manner than malleable Iron, and in an infinitely less intense degree. (Arago)"

"For his various Communications on the subject of Magnetism. (Barlow)"
[61]
Image of nothing.svg 1826 James South InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Astrónomo «For his observations of Double Stars, and his Paper on the Discordances between the Suns observed and computed Right Ascensions, published in the Transactions of the Society. For his Paper of Observations of the Apparent Distances and Positions of Four Hundred and Fifty-eight Double and Triple Stars, published in the present volume (1826, Part 1.) of the Transactions.» [62]
Prout William painting.jpg 1827 William Prout
Henry Foster
«For his Paper entitled, On the ultimate Composition of simple alimentary substances, with some preliminary remarks on the analysis of organized bodies in general.» (Prout)
«For his magnetic and other observations made during the Arctic expedition to Port Bowen.» (Foster)
[63]
1828 No entregada
1829 No entregada
1830 No entregada
George Biddell Airy.jpg 1831 George Biddell Airy InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Astrónomo y matemático «For his Papers, On the principle of the construction of the Achromatic Eye-pieces of Telescopes, – On the Spherical Aberration of the Eye-pieces of Telescopes, and for other Papers on Optical Subjects in the Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.» [64]
Faraday-Millikan-Gale-1913.jpg
Simeon Poisson.jpg
1832 Michael Faraday
Simeon Poisson
Físico «For his discovery of Magneto-Electricity as detailed in his Experimental Researches in Electricity, published in the Philosophical Transactions for the present year.» (Faraday)
«For his work entitled, Nouvelle Theorie de lAction Capillaire.» (Poisson)
[65]
1833 No entregada
Giovanni Plana, ante 1864 - Accademia delle Scienze di Torino Ritratti 0105 C.jpg 1834 Giovanni Antonio Amedeo «For his work entitled, Theorie du Mouvement de la Lune.» [66]
Image of nothing.svg 1835 William Snow Harris InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Médico e investigador eléctrico «For his experimental investigations of the force of electricity of high intensity contained in the Philosophical Transactions of 1834.» [50]
Jöns Jacob Berzelius.jpg 1836 Jöns Jacob Berzelius
Francis Kiernan
«For his systematic application of the doctrine of definite proportions to the analysis of mineral bodies, as contained in his Nouveau Systeme de Mineralogie, and in other of his works». (Berzelius)
«For his discoveries relating to the structure of the liver, as detailed in his paper communicated to the Royal Society, and published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1833». (Kiernan)
Antoine Becquerel 2.jpg
Daniell chemist b.jpg
1837 Antoine César Becquerel
John Frederic Daniell
«For his various memoirs on the subject of electricity, published in the Memoires deacademie Royale des Sciences de lInstitut de France, and particularly for those on the production of crystals of metallic sulphurets and of sulphur, by the long-continued action of electricity of very low tension, and published in the tenth volume of those Memoires». (Becquerel)
«For his two papers on voltaic combinations published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1836». (Daniell)
[67]
Carl Friedrich Gauss.jpg
Faraday-Millikan-Gale-1913.jpg
1838 Carl Friedrich Gauss
Michael Faraday
«For his inventions and mathematical researches in magnetism». (Gauss)
«For his researches in specific electrical induction». (Faraday)
[68]
Robert Brown (botanist).jpg 1839 Robert Brown «For his discoveries during a series of years, on the subject of vegetable impregnation.» [69]
Justus von Liebig NIH.jpg
Charles Sturm.jpeg
1840 Justus Liebig
Jacques Charles François Sturm
«For his discoveries in organic chemistry, and particularly for his development of the composition and theory of organic radicals». (Liebig)
«For his "Memoire sur la Resolution des Equations Numeriques," published in the Memoires des Savans Etrangers for 1835». (Sturm)
[70][71]
Georg Simon Ohm3.jpg 1841 Georg Ohm AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania Físico y matemático «For his researches into the laws of electric currents contained in various memoirs published in Schweiggers Journal, Poggendorffs Annalen and in a separate work entitled Die galvanische Kette mathematisch bearbeitet.» [72]
James MacCullagh.png 1842 James MacCullagh Bandera de Irlanda Irlanda Matemático «For his researches connected with the wave theory of light, contained in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy.» [73]
Jean Baptiste André Dumas.jpg 1843 Jean Baptiste Dumas Bandera de Francia Francia Químico, político «For his late valuable researches in organic chemistry, particularly those contained in a series of memoirs on chemical types and the doctrine of substitution, and also for his elaborate investigations of the atomic weights of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and other elements.»
Carlo Matteucci.jpeg 1844 Carlo Matteucci ItaliaFlag of Italy.svg Italia Físico «For his various researches in animal electricity.» [74]
Theodor Schwann Litho.jpg 1845 Theodor Schwann AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania Naturalista, fisiólogo y anatomista «For his physiological researches on the development of animal & vegetable textures, published in his work entitled Mikroskopische Untersuchungen uber die Uebereinstimmung in der Struktur u. dem Wachsthun der Thiese u. Pflanzen.»
Urbain Le Verrier.jpg 1846 Urbain Le Verrier Bandera de Francia Francia Matemático «For his investigations relative to the disturbances of Uranus by which he proved the existence and predicted the place of the new Planet; the Council considering such prediction confirmed as it was by the immediate discovery of the Planet to be one of the proudest triumphs of modern analysis applied to the Newtonian Theory of Gravitation.» [75]
Julia Margaret Cameron - John Herschel (Metropolitan Museum of Art copy, restored).jpg 1847 John Herschel InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Matemático y astrónomo «For his work entitled Results of Astronomical Observations made during the years 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837 and 1838, at the Cape of Good Hope; being a completion of a telescopic survey of the whole surface of the visible heavens, commenced in 1825.» [58]
John Couch Adams.jpg 1848 John Couch Adams InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Matemático y astrónomo «For his investigations relative to the disturbances of Uranus, and for his application of the inverse problem of perturbations thereto.» [76]
Murchison Roderick.jpg 1849 Roderick Murchison EscociaBandera de Escocia Escocia Geólogo, paleontólogo, naturalista, pteridólogo, algólogo «For the eminent services he has rendered to geological science during many years of active observation in several parts of Europe; and especially for the establishment of that classification of the older Palaeozoic deposits designated the Silurian System, as set forth in the two works entitled The Silurian System founded on Geological Researches in England, and The Geology of Russia in Europe and the Ural Mountains.»
P.A.Hansen.jpg 1850 Peter Andreas Hansen DinamarcaBandera de Dinamarca Dinamarca Astrónomo «For his researches in physical astronomy.» [50]
Richard-owen2.jpg 1851 Richard Owen InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra biólogo, paleontólogo y anatomista comparativo «On account of his important discoveries in comparative anatomy & palaeontology, contained in the Philosophical Transactions and numerous other works.» [77]
AvHumboldt.jpg 1852 Alexander von Humboldt AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania Geógrafo, astrónomo, humanista, naturalista y explorador «For his eminent services in terrestrial physics, during a series of years.» [78]
Heinrich Wilhelm Dove 1857.jpg 1853 Heinrich Wilhelm Dove AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania Físico, climatólogo y meteorólogo «For his work on the distribution of heat over the surface of the Earth.»
Johannes Peter Müller.jpg 1854 Johannes Peter Müller AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania Anatomista y fisiólogo «For his important contributions to different branches of physiology and comparative anatomy, and particularly for his researches on the embryology of the Echinodermata, contained in a series of memoirs published in the Transactions of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin.» [79]
Foucault.jpg 1855 Léon Foucault Bandera de Francia Francia Físico y astrónomo «For his various researches in experimental physics.» [50]
Henri Milne-Edwards.jpg 1856 Henri Milne-Edwards Bandera de Francia Francia Zoólogo «For his researches in comparative anatomy and zoology.»
Michel Eugène Chevreul 2.jpg 1857 Michel Eugène Chevreul Bandera de Francia Francia Químico «For his researches in organic chemistry, particularly on the composition of the fats, and for his researches on the contrast of coulours.» [50]
Charles Lyell00.jpg 1858 Charles Lyell EscociaBandera de Escocia Escocia Geólogo «For his various researches and writings by which he has contributed to the advance of geology.» [50]
Wilhelm Eduard Weber II.jpg 1859 Wilhelm Eduard Weber «For the investigations contained in his Maasbestimmungen and other researches in electricity, magnetism, acoustics.» [80]
Robert Bunsen 02.jpg 1860 Robert Wilhelm Bunsen «For his researches on cacodyls, gaseous analysis, the Voltaire phenomena of Iceland; and other researches.» [50]
Louis Agassiz H6.jpg 1861 Louis Agassiz «For his eminent researches in palaeontology and other branches of science, and particularly for his great works the Poissons Fossiles, and his Poissons du Vieux Gres Rouge dEcosse.» [50]
Thomas Graham by Maull & Polybank, 1856.jpg 1862 Thomas Graham «For three memoirs of the diffusion of liquids, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1850 and 1851; for a memoir on osmotic force in the Philosophical Transactions for 1854; and particularly for a paper on liquid diffusion applied to analysis, including a distinction of compounds into colloids & crystalloids published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1861.» [81]
Adam Sedgwick.jpg 1863 Adam Sedgwick «For his original observations and discoveries in the geology of the Palaeozoic Series of rocks, and more especially for his determination of the characters of the Devonian System, by observations of the order of superposition of the Killas rocks & their fossils in Devonshire.» [82]
Charles Darwin seated crop.jpg 1864 Charles Darwin «For his important researches in geology, zoology, and botanical physiology.» [50]
Michel Chasles.jpg 1865 Michel Chasles «For his historical and original researches in pure geometry.» [83]
Julius Plücker.jpg 1866 Julius Plücker «For his researches in analytical geometry, magnetism, & spectral analysis.» [84]
Voyages de la Commission scientifique du Nord, en Scandinavie, en Laponie, au Spitzberg et aux Feröe - no-nb digibok 2009040211001-118.jpg 1867 Karl Ernst von Baer «For his discoveries in embryology and comparative anatomy, and for his contributions to the philosophy of zoology.» [50]
Wheatstone Charles drawing 1868.jpg 1868 Charles Wheatstone «For his researches in acoustics, optics, electricity and magnetism.» [50]
Henri Victor Regnault.jpg 1869 Henri Victor Regnault «For the second volume of his Relation des Experiences pour determiner les lois et les donnees physiques necessaires au calcul des machines a feu, including his elaborate investigations on the specific heat of gases and vapours, and various papers on the elastic force of vapours.» [50]
Joule James sitting.jpg 1870 James Prescott Joule «For his experimental researches on the dynamical theory of heat.» [50]
Julius Robert Mayer von Friedrich Berrer.jpg 1871 Julius Robert von Mayer «For his researches on the mechanics of heat; including essays on: – 1. The force of inorganic nature. 2. Organic motion in connection with nutrition. 3. Fever. 4. Celestial dynamics. 5. The mechanical equivalent of heat.» [50]
Friedrich Wöhler Stich.jpg 1872 Friedrich Woehler «For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and more especially for his researches on the products of the decomposition of cyanogens by ammonia; on the derivatives of uric acid; on the benzoyl series; on boron, silicon, & their compounds; and on meteoric stones.» [50]
Hermann von Helmholtz.jpg 1873 Hermann Helmholtz «For his researches in physics and physiology.» [85]
Louis Pasteur, foto av Paul Nadar, Crisco edit.jpg 1874 Louis Pasteur «For his researches on fermentation and on pelerine.» [50]
Hoffman August Wilhelm von.jpg 1875 August Wilhelm Hofmann «For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and especially for his researches on the derivatives of ammonia.» [86]
Claude Bernard.jpg 1876 Claude Bernard «For his numerous contributions to the science of physiology.» [50]
James Dwight Dana by Warren, 1865.jpg 1877 James Dwight Dana «For his biological, geological, and mineralogical investigations, carried on through half a century, and for the valuable works in which his conclusions and discoveries have been published.» [50]
Jean Baptiste JD Boussingault.jpg 1878 Jean-Baptiste Boussingault «For his long-continued and important researches and discoveries in agricultural chemistry.» [87]
Clausius.jpg 1879 Rudolf Clausius «For his well-known researches upon heat.» [88]
James Joseph Sylvester.jpg 1880 James Joseph Sylvester «For his long continued investigations & discoveries in mathematics.» [89]
Charles-Adolphe Wurtz.jpg 1881 Karl Adolph Wurtz «For his discovery of the organic ammonias, the glycols, and other investigations which have exercised considerable influence on the progress of chemistry.»
Arthur Cayley.jpg 1882 Arthur Cayley «For his numerous profound and comprehensive researches in pure mathematics.» [90]
Lord Kelvin photograph.jpg 1883 William Thomson, Lord Kelvin «For (1) his discovery of the law of the universal dissipation of energy; (2) his researches and eminent services in physics, both experimental & mathematical, especially in the theory of electricity and thermodynamics.» [91]
Carl Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig.jpg 1884 Carl Ludwig «For his investigations in physiology, and the great services which he has rendered to physiological science.»
Frkekulé.jpg 1885 Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz «For his researches in organic chemistry.» [50]
Franz Ernst Neumann by Carl Steffeck 1886.jpg 1886 Franz Ernst Neumann «For his researches in theoretical optics and electro-dynamics.» [92]
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker.jpg 1887 Joseph Dalton Hooker «For his services to botanical science as an investigator, author, and traveller.» [50]
T.H.Huxley(Woodburytype).jpg 1888 Thomas Henry Huxley «For his investigations on the morphology and histology of vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and for his services to biological science in general during many past years.» [50]
GeorgeSalmon(1819-1904).jpg 1889 George Salmon «For his various papers on subjects of pure mathematics, and for the valuable mathematical treatises of which he is the author.» [93]
Simon Newcomb 01.jpg 1890 Simon Newcomb CanadáFlag of Canada.svg Canadá
(estadounidense)
Astrónomo y matemático estadounidense de origen canadiense «For his contributions to the progress of gravitational astronomy.» [94]
Cannizzaro Stanislao.jpg 1891 Stanislao Cannizzaro ItaliaFlag of Italy.svg Italia Químico «For his contributions to chemical philosophy especially for his application of Avogadros theory.» [50]
Rudolf Virchow NLM3.jpg 1892 Rudolf Virchow AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania Médico patólogo, antropólogo, político y biólogo «For his investigations in pathology, pathological anatomy, and prehistoric archaeology.» [50]
Ggstokes.jpg 1893 George Gabriel Stokes Bandera de Irlanda Irlanda Matemático y físico «For his researches and discoveries in physical science.» [95]
Frankland Edward 26.jpg 1894 Edward Frankland InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Químico «For his eminent services to theoretical & applied chemistry.» [96]
Karl Weierstrass.jpg 1895 Karl Weierstrass AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania Matemático «For his investigations in pure mathematics.» [97]
Gegenbaur.jpg 1896 Karl Gegenbaur AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania Anatomista «For his life-long researches in comparative anatomy in all branches of the animal kingdom. etc., etc.»
Kolliker2.jpg 1897 Rudolph Albert von Kölliker SuizaFlag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Suiza Anatomista, embriólogo, fisiólogo, zoólogo y botánico «In recognition of his important work in embryology, comparative anatomy, and physiology, and especially for his eminence as a histologist.»
Sir William Huggins by John Collier.jpg 1898 William Huggins InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Astrónomo «For his researches in spectrum analysis applied to the heavenly bodies.» [50]
John William Strutt.jpg 1899 John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Física de 1904
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra físico «In recognition of his contributions to physical science.» [98]
Marcellin Berthelot.jpg 1900 Marcellin Berthelot Bandera de Francia Francia Químico e historiador «For his brilliant services to chemical science.» [50]
Josiah Willard Gibbs -from MMS-.jpg 1901 Willard Gibbs Bandera de Estados Unidos Estados Unidos físico «For his contributions to mathematical physics.» [99]
Joseph Lister 1902.jpg 1902 Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Cirujano «In recognition of the value of his physiological and pathological researches in regard to their influence on the modern practice of surgery.» [100]
Eduard Sueß.jpg 1903 Eduard Suess AustriaFlag of Austria.svg Austria geólogo «For his eminent geological services, & especially for the original researches & conclusions published in his great work 'Das Antlitz der Erde'.» [100]
PSM V10 D660 William Crookes.jpg 1904 William Crookes InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Químico «For his long-continued researches in spectroscopic chemistry, on electrical & mechanical phenomena in highly-rarefied gases, on radio-active phenomena, and other subjects.» [100]
DIMendeleevCab.jpg 1905 Dmitri Mendeleev RusiaFlag of Russia.svg Rusia Químico «For his contributions to chemical and physical science.» [100]
Ilya Mechnikov nobel.jpg 1906 Elias Metchnikoff
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina en 1908
UcraniaFlag of Ukraine.svg Ucrania
(y ruso y francés)
Microbiólogo «On the ground of the importance of his work in zoology and in pathology.» [100]
Albert Abraham Michelson2.jpg 1907 Albert Abraham Michelson
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Física en 1907
Bandera de Estados Unidos Estados Unidos Físico «On the ground of his investigations in optics.» [100]
Alfred-Russel-Wallace-c1895.jpg 1908 Alfred Russel Wallace GalesBandera de Gales Gales naturalista, explorador, geógrafo, antropólogo y biólogo «On the ground of the great value of his numerous contributions to natural history, and of the part he took in working out the theory of the origin of species by natural selection.» [100]
Hill1905.jpg 1909 George William Hill Bandera de Estados Unidos Estados Unidos Astrónomo y matemático «On the ground of his researches in mathematical astronomy.» [100]
Francis Galton 1850s.jpg 1910 Francis Galton InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra polímata, antropólogo, geógrafo, explorador, inventor, meteorólogo, estadístico, psicólogo y eugenista «On the ground of his researches in heredity.» [100]
George Darwin sepia tone.jpg 1911 George Howard Darwin InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Astrónomo «On the ground of his researches on tidal theory, the figures of the planets, and allied subjects.» [100]
Felix Klein.jpeg 1912 Felix Klein AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania Matemático «On the ground of his researches in mathematics.» [101]
Ray Lankester.png 1913 Ray Lankester InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra naturalista, zoólogo, y algólogo «On the ground of the high scientific value of the researches in zoology carried out by him.» [102]
J.J Thomson.jpg 1914 Joseph John Thomson
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Física en 1906
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra científico «On the ground of his discoveries in physical science.» [100]
Ivan Pavlov NLM3.jpg 1915 Iván Pávlov RusiaFlag of Russia.svg Rusia fisiólogo «On the ground of his investigations in the physiology of digestion and of the higher centres of the nervous system.» [100]
James Dewar.jpg 1916 James Dewar EscociaBandera de Escocia Escocia físico y químico «For his important investigations in physical chemistry, more especially his researches on the liquefaction of gases.» [100]
Pierre Paul Émile Roux 2.jpg 1917 Pierre Paul Émile Roux Bandera de Francia Francia Médico, bacteriólogo e inmunólogo «On the ground of his eminence as a bacteriologist, and as a pioneer in serum therapy.» [103]
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz.jpg 1918 Hendrik Lorentz
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Física de 1902
Países BajosFlag of the Netherlands.svg Países Bajos físico «On the ground of his distinguished researches in mathematical physics.» [100]
Image of nothing.svg 1919 William Bayliss InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra fisiólogo «On the ground of his researches in general physiology & biophysics.» [100]
Horace Tabberer Brown c1889.jpg 1920 Horace Brown Reino UnidoBandera de Reino Unido Reino Unido Químico «On the ground of his work on the chemistry of carbohydrates, &c.» [104]
Joseph Larmor.jpeg 1921 Joseph Larmor Irlanda del NorteBandera de Irlanda del Norte Irlanda del Norte físico y matemático «For his researches in mathematical physics.» [105]
Sir Ernest Rutherford.jpg 1922 Ernest Rutherford
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química en 1908
Nueva ZelandaBandera de Nueva Zelanda Nueva Zelanda físico «For his researches in radio activity & atomic structure.» [100]
Lamb Horace bw.jpg 1923 Horace Lamb Matemático aplicado «For his researches in mathematical physics.» [106]
PSM V79 D521 Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer.png 1924 Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra fisiólogo «For the valuable work he has done in physiology and histology and the position he now occupies as a leader in these sciences.»
Einstein 1921 by F Schmutzer - restoration.jpg 1925 Albert Einstein
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Física 1921
AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania
(luego suizo, austriaco y estadounidense)
físico «For his theory of relativity and his contributions to the quantum theory.» [100]
Frederick Gowland Hopkins nobel.jpg 1926 Frederick Hopkins
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina en 1929
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra bioquímico «For his distinguished and fruitful work in biochemistry.» [107]
Prof. Charles Scott Sherrington.jpg 1927 Charles Sherrington
Nobel prize medal.svg premio Nobel de Medicina de 1932
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Neurofisiólogo «For his distinguished work on neurology.» [108]
Charles Algernon Parsons.jpg 1928 Charles Algernon Parsons InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra ingeniero e inventor «For his contributions to engineering science.»
Max Planck 1933.jpg 1929 Max Planck
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Física en 1918
AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania físico y matemático «For his contributions to theoretical physics and especially as the originator of the quantum theory.» [109]
Wh-bragg.jpg 1930 William Bragg
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Física de 1915
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra físico «For his distinguished contributions to crystallography and radioactivity.» [110]
Schuster Arthur signature.jpg 1931 Arthur Schuster AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania
(británico)
físico «For his distinguished researches in optics and terrestrial magnetism.» [111]
Portrait of George Ellery Hale.jpg 1932 George Ellery Hale Bandera de Estados Unidos Estados Unidos Astrónomo solar «For his distinguished work on the solar magnetic phenomena and for his eminence as a scientific engineer, especially in connexion with Mount Wilson Observatory.» [112]
Theobald Smith 2.jpg 1933 Theobald Smith Bandera de Estados Unidos Estados Unidos epidemiólogo y patólogo «For his original research and observation on diseases of animals and man.» [113]
John Scott Haldane 1910.jpg 1934 John Scott Haldane EscociaBandera de Escocia Escocia filósofo y biólogo «In recognition of his discoveries in human physiology and of their application to medicine, mining, diving and engineering.» [114]
CTR Wilson.jpg 1935 Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Física en 1927
EscociaBandera de Escocia Escocia físico «For his work on the use of clouds in advancing our knowledge of atoms and their properties.» [115]
SirArthurEvans.JPG 1936 Arthur Evans InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Arqueólogo «In recognition of his pioneer work in Crete, particularly his contributions to the history and civilization of its Minoan age.» [116]
Henry Dale nobel.jpg 1937 Henry Dale
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Medicina en 1936
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra fisiólogo «In recognition of his important contributions to physiology and pharmacology, particularly in relation to the nervous and neuro-muscular systems.» [117]
Niels Bohr.jpg 1938 Niels Bohr
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Física en 1922
DinamarcaBandera de Dinamarca Dinamarca físico «In recognition of his distinguished work in the development of the quantum theory of atomic structure.» [118]
Thomas Hunt Morgan.jpg 1939 Thomas Hunt Morgan
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Fisiología y Medicina en 1933
Bandera de Estados Unidos Estados Unidos genetista «For his establishment of the modern science of genetics which had revolutionized our understanding, not only of heredity, but of the mechanism and nature of evolution.» [119]
Langevin.jpg 1940 Paul Langevin Bandera de Francia Francia físico «For his pioneer work on the electron theory of magnetism, his fundamental contributions to discharge of electricity in gases, and his important work in many branches of theoretical physics.» [120]
Thomas Lewis (cardiologist).jpg 1941 Thomas Lewis GalesBandera de Gales Gales Cardiólogo «For his clinical and experimental investigations upon the mammalian heart.» [121]
Robert Robinson organic chemist.jpg 1942 Robert Robinson
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química de 1947
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Químico «For his research work of outstanding originality and brilliance which has influenced the whole field of organic chemistry.» [122]
Joseph Barcroft c1940.jpg 1943 Joseph Barcroft Irlanda del NorteBandera de Irlanda del Norte Irlanda del Norte fisiólogo «For his distinguished work on respiration and the respiratory function of the blood.» [123]
1946 Geoffrey Taylor InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra físico y matemático «For his many contributions to aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, and the structure of metals, which have had a profound influence on the advance of physical science and its applications.» [124]
Oswald T. Avery portrait 1937.jpg 1945 Oswald Theodore Avery CanadáFlag of Canada.svg Canadá Médico y biólogo molecular «For his success in introducing chemical methods in the study of immunity against infective diseases.» [125]
Edgar Douglas Adrian nobel.jpg 1946 Edgar Douglas Adrian
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Medicina de 1932
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Fisiólogo «For his distinguished researches on the fundamental nature of nervous activity, and recently on the localization of certain nervous functions.» [126]
Ghhardy@72.jpg 1947 G. H. Hardy InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Matemático «For his distinguished part in the development of mathematical analysis in England during the last thirty years.» [127]
Archibald Vivian Hill.jpg 1948 Archibald Vivian Hill
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Medicina de 1922
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra fisiólogo y matemático «For his distinguished researches on myothermal problems and on biophysical phenomena in nerve and other tissues.» [128]
George de Hevesy.jpg 1949 George Charles De Hevesy
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química de 1943
SueciaFlag of Sweden.svg Suecia Químico-físico «For his distinguished work on the chemistry of radioactive elements and especially for his development of the radioactive tracer techniques in the investigation of biological processes.» [129]
James Chadwick.jpg 1950 James Chadwick
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de física de 1935
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra físico «For his outstanding work in nuclear physics and in the development of atomic energy, especially for his discovery of the neutron.» [130]
David Keilin 1931.jpg 1951 David Keilin RusiaFlag of Russia.svg Rusia
(británico)
naturalista, bioquímico, entomólogo «For his fundamental researches in the fields of protozoology, entomology and the biochemistry of enzymes.» [131]
Dirac 4.jpg 1952 Paul Dirac
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de física de 1933
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra ingeniero eléctrico, matemático y físico teórico «In recognition of his remarkable contributions to relativistic dynamics of a particle in quantum mechanics.» [132]
Dr. A.J. Kluyver, 1921.jpg 1953 Albert Kluyver Nueva ZelandaBandera de Nueva Zelanda Nueva Zelanda Microbiólogo, micólogo y bioquímico «For his distinguished contributions of a fundamental character to the science of microbiology.»
Edmund Taylor Whitakker by Arthur Trevor Haddon.jpg 1954 Edmund Whittaker EscociaBandera de Escocia Escocia Matemático «For his distinguished contributions to both pure and applied mathematics and to theoretical physics.» [133]
Youngronaldfisher2.JPG 1955 Ronald Fisher InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra estadístico y biólogo «In recognition of his numerous and distinguished contributions to developing the theory and application of statistics for making quantitative a vast field of biology.» [134]
Blackett-large.jpg 1956 Patrick Blackett
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Física en 1948
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra físico experimental «In recognition of his outstanding studies of cosmic ray showers and heavy mesons and in the field of palaeomagnetism.»
Howard Walter Florey 1945.jpg 1957 Howard Florey
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina de 1945
Bandera de Australia Australia farmacólogo «In recognition of his distinguished contributions to experimental pathology and medicine.» [135]
John Edensor Littlewood.jpg 1958 John Edensor Littlewood InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Matemático «In recognition of his distinguished contributions to many branches of analysis, including Tauberian theory, the Riemann zeta function, and nonlinear differential equations"- [136]
Burnet 2jpg.jpg 1959 Macfarlane Burnet
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Medicina en 1960
Bandera de Australia Australia biólogo «In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of viruses and of immunology.» [137]
1960 Harold Jeffreys InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Matemático, estadistístico, geofísico y astrónomo «In recognition of his distinguished work in many branches of geophysics, and also in the theory of probability and astronomy.» [138]
Hans Adolf Krebs.jpg 1961 Hans Adolf Krebs
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina en 1953
AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania bioquímico «In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry, in particular his work on the ornithine, tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles.» [139]
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood Nobel.jpg 1962 Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química en 1956
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Químico «In recognition of his distinguished researches in the field of chemical kinetics, including the study of biological reaction mechanisms, and of his outstanding contributions to natural philosophy.» [140]
Sir Paul Fildes by Sir (Samuel) Luke Fildes.jpg 1963 Paul Fildes InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra patólogo y microbiólogo «In recognition of his pioneering contributions to bacteriology.»
Sydney Chapman.jpg 1964 Sydney Chapman InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra
(estadounidense)
Matemático y geofísico «In recognition of his theoretical contributions to terrestrial and interplanetary magnetism, the ionosphere and the aurora borealis.» [141]
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin nobel.jpg 1965 Alan Hodgkin
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina de 1963
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra fisiólogo y biofísico «In recognition of his discovery of the mechanism of excitation and impulse conduction in nerve, and his outstanding leadership in the development of neurophysiology.»
Wl-bragg.jpg 1966 William Lawrence Bragg
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Física de 1915
Bandera de Australia Australia físico «In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the development of methods of structural determination by Xray diffraction.» [100]
Sir Bernard Katz.jpg 1967 Bernard Katz
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina en 1970
AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania
Reino UnidoBandera de Reino Unido Reino Unido
biofísico «In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of the fundamental processes involved in transmission across the neuromuscular junction.»
Thadeus Reichstein ETH-Bib Portr 10137.jpg 1968 Tadeus Reichstein
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina en 1950
PoloniaFlag of Poland.svg Polonia Bioquímico «In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemistry of vitamin C and his authoritative studies of the corticosteroids.»
Peter Brian Medawar.jpg 1969 Peter Medawar
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina de 1960
Reino UnidoBandera de Reino Unido Reino Unido zoólogo, médico, inmunólogo, divulgador científico y filósofo «In recognition of his distinguished studies of tissue transplantation and immunological tolerance.» [100]
Alexander Todd Nobel.jpg 1970 Alexander Todd
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química de 1957.
EscociaBandera de Escocia Escocia Químico «In recognition of his outstanding contributions to both the analytical and synthetic chemistry of natural products of diverse types.» [100]
Image of nothing.svg 1971 Norman Pirie InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Bioquímico y virólogo «In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry and especially for his elucidation of the nature of plant viruses.»
1972 Nevill Mott
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Física del año 1977
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra físico «In recognition of his original contributions over a long period to atomic and solid state physics.» [100]
Andrew Fielding Huxley nobel.jpg 1973 Andrew Huxley
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina de 1963
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra fisiólogo y biofísico «In recognition of his outstanding studies on the mechanisms of the nerve impulse and of activation of muscular contraction.»
Image of nothing.svg 1974 W. V. D. Hodge EscociaBandera de Escocia Escocia Matemático y geómetra «In recognition of his pioneering work in algebraic geometry, notably in his theory of harmonic integrals.» [142]
Francis Crick crop.jpg 1975 Francis Crick
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de fisiología y medicina de 1962
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra físico, biólogo molecular y neurocientífico «In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of DNA and his continuing contribution to molecular biology.» [100]
Image of nothing.svg 1976 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química en 1964.
Reino UnidoBandera de Reino Unido Reino Unido Química «In recognition of her outstanding work on the structures of complex molecules, particularly Penicillin, vitamin B and insulin"12 [100]
Frederick Sanger2.jpg 1977 Frederick Sanger
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química (1958 y 1980)
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Bioquímico «In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemical structure of proteins and his studies on the sequences of nucleic acids.» [100]
Image of nothing.svg 1978 Robert B. Woodward
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química del año 1965
Bandera de Estados Unidos Estados Unidos Químico «In recognition of his masterly contributions to the synthesis of complex natural products and his discovery of the importance of orbital symmetry.» [100]
Max Perutz.jpg 1979 Max Perutz
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química del año 1962
AustriaFlag of Austria.svg Austria Química «In recognition of his distinguished contributions to molecular biology through his own studies of the structure and biological activity of haemoglobin and his leadership in the development of the subject.» [100]
Image of nothing.svg 1980 Derek Harold Richard Barton
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química del año 1969
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Químico «In recognition of his distinguished contributions to a wide range of problems in structural and synthetic organic chemistry and, in particular, his introduction of conformational analysis into stereochemistry.» [100]
1981 Peter Dennis Mitchell
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química de 1978
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Bioquímico «In recognition of his distinguished contribution to biology in his formulation and development of the chemiosmotic theory of energy transduction.» [100]
John Cornforth 1975.jpg 1982 John Cornforth
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química de 1975
Bandera de Australia Australia
(británico)
Químico «In recognition of his distinguished research on the stereochemicallycontrolled synthesis and biosynthesis of biologically important molecules"- [143]
Rodney Robert Porter.jpg 1983 Rodney Porter
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina de 1972
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Bioquímico «In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of immunoglobulins and of the reactions involved in activating the complement system of proteins.»
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar.gif 1984 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Física de 1983
Bandera de la India India
(estadounidense)
Físico teórico, astrofísico y matemático «In recognition of his distinguished work on theoretical physics, including stellar structure, theory of radiation, hydrodynamic stability and relativity.» [144]
Aaron Klug 1979.jpg 1985 Aaron Klug
Nobel prize medal.svgPremio Nobel de Química de 1982
LituaniaFlag of Lithuania.svg Lituania
(británico)
químico y bioquímico «In recognition of his outstanding contributions to our understanding of complex biological structures and the methods used for determining them.»
Peierls,Rudolf 1966 Göttingen.jpg 1986 Rudolph Peierls AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania
(británico)
físico «In recognition of his fundamental contributions to a very wide range of theoretical physics, and signal advances in proposing the probable existence of nuclear chain reactions in fissile materials.»
1987 Robert Hill InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra bioquímico «In recognition of his pioneering contributions to the understanding of the nature and mechanism of the main pathway of electron transport in photosynthesis.»
Michael Francis Atiyah.jpg 1988 Michael Francis Atiyah InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Matemático «In recognition of his fundamental contributions to a wide range of topics in geometry, topology, analysis and theoretical physics.» [145]
Milstein lnp.jpg 1989 César Milstein
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel en Medicina en 1984
Bandera de Argentina Argentina Químico «In recognition of his outstanding contributions to immunology, in particular to the discovery of monoclonal antibodies and to the understanding of the role of somatic mutations in the maturation of the immune response.»
Abdus Salam 1987.jpg 1990 Abdus Salam
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Física en 1979
PakistánBandera de Pakistán Pakistán físico teórico «In recognition of his work on the symmetries of the laws of nature, and especially the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces.» [146]
EMLederberg GStent SBrenner JLederberg 1965 wiki.jpg 1991 Sydney Brenner
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina de 2002
Bandera de Sudán Sudán Biólogo «In recognition of his many contributions to molecular genetics and developmental biology, and his recent role in the Human Genome mapping project.»
George Porter Nobel.jpg 1992 George Porter
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química del año 1967
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Químico «In recognition of his contributions to fundamental understanding of fast photochemical and photophysical processes and their role in chemistry and biology.» [147]
James D Watson.jpg 1993 James D. Watson
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel en Fisiología o Medicina de 1962
Bandera de Estados Unidos Estados Unidos Biólogo «In recognition of his tireless pursuit of DNA, from the elucidation of its structure to the social and medical implications of the sequencing of the human genome.» [148]
1994 Charles Frank Reino UnidoBandera de Reino Unido Reino Unido físico teórico «In recognition of his fundamental contribution to the theory of crystal morphology, in particular to the source of dislocations and their consequences in interfaces and crystal growth; to fundamental understanding of liquid crystals and the concept of disclination; and to the extension of crystallinity concepts to aperiodic crystals. He has also contributed through a variety of remarkable insights into a great number of physical problems.»
1995 Frank Fenner Bandera de Australia Australia Médico «In recognition of his contribution to animal virology with special emphasis on the pox and myxomatosis viruses and their relationship with the host in causing disease.»
Image of nothing.svg 1996 Alan Cottrell InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Metalúrgico y físico «In recognition of his contribution to the understanding of mechanical properties of materials and related topics through his pioneering studies on crystal plasticity, dislocation impurity interactions, fracture and irradiation effects.» [149]
Image of nothing.svg 1997 Hugh Huxley InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Biólogo «In recognition of his pioneering work on the structure of muscle and on the molecular mechanisms of muscle contraction, providing solutions to one of the great problems in physiology.»
Image of nothing.svg 1998 James Lighthill Reino UnidoBandera de Reino Unido Reino Unido Matemático «In recognition of his profound contributions to many fields within fluid mechanics including important aspects of the interaction of sound and fluid flow and numerous other contributions which have had practical applications in aircraft engine design. He is noted also for his groundbreaking work on both external biofluiddynamics analysis of mechanisms of swimming and flying and internal biofluiddynamics, including flow in the cardiovascular system and the airways, and cochlear mechanics and other aspects of hearing"---––-- [150]
John Maynard Smith.jpg 1999 John Maynard Smith InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra genetista e investigador en biología evolutiva «In recognition of his seminal contributions to evolutionary biology, including his experimental work on sexual selection, his important contributions to our understanding of ageing, his introduction of game theoretical methods for the analysis of complex evolutionary scenarios and his research into molecular evolution, both through his classic work on genetic hitchhiking, and with his more recent, ongoing work on bacterial population growth.» [151]
ARBOffice.jpg 2000 Alan Battersby InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Químico orgánico «In recognition of his pioneering work in elucidating the detailed biosynthetic pathways to all the major families of plant alkaloids. His approach, which stands as a paradigm for future biosynthetic studies on complex molecules, combines isolation work, structure determination, synthesis, isotopic labelling and spectroscopy, especially advanced NMR, as well as genetics and molecular biology. This spectacular research revealed the entire pathway to vitamin B"12
Image of nothing.svg 2001 Jacques Miller Bandera de Francia Francia
australiano
Médico e investigador «For his work on the immunological function of the thymus and of T cells, which has revolutionised the science of immunology. Professor Millers work is paving the way for designing new methods to improve resistance to infections, producing new vaccines, enhancing graft survival, dealing with autoimmunity and even persuading the immune system to reject cancer cells.»
John Anthony Pople.png 2002 John Pople
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química en 1998.
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Químico y matemático «For his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry. His work transformed density functional theory into a powerful theoretical tool for chemistry, chemical physics and biology.» [152]
John Gurdon Cambridge 2012.JPG 2003 John Gurdon
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina en 2012
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra biólogo «For his unique range of groundbreaking discoveries in the fields of cell and developmental biology. He pioneered the concept that specialised cells are genetically equivalent and that they differ only in the genes they express not the genes they contain, a concept fundamental to modern biology.»
Harold Kroto 1c389 8471.sweden.jpg 2004 Harold Kroto
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química de 1996
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Químico «in recognition of his seminal contributions to understanding the fundamental dynamics of carbon chain molecules, leading to the detection of these species (polyynes) in the interstellar medium by radioastronomy, and thence to the genesis of a new era in carbon science.» [153]
Paul Nurse portrait.jpg 2005 Paul Nurse
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina de 2001
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra bioquímico «for his contributions to cell biology in general, and to the elucidation of the control of cell division.»
Stephen Hawking.StarChild.jpg 2006 Stephen Hawking InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra físico teórico, astrofísico, cosmólogo y divulgador científico «For his outstanding contribution to theoretical physics and theoretical cosmology. .» [30]
BobMayHarvard.jpg 2007 Robert May «for his seminal studies of interactions within and among biological populations that have reshaped our understanding of how species, communities and entire ecosystems respond to natural or human created disturbance.»
Roger Penrose-6Nov2005.jpg 2008 Roger Penrose InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Físico y matemático «for his beautiful and original insights into many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Sir Roger has made outstanding contributions to general relativity theory and cosmology, most notably for his work on black holes and the Big Bang.»
Martin Evans Nobel Prize.jpg 2009 Martin Evans
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Medicina o Fisiología en 2007
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Genetista y bioquímico «for his seminal work on embryonic stem cells in mice, which revolutionised the field of genetics.»
Nci-vol-8182-300 david cox.jpg
Tomas Lindahl 0113.jpg
2010
[Nota 1]
David Cox
Tomas Lindahl
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química en 2015
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra
SueciaFlag of Sweden.svg Suecia
Estadístico
Médico, y biólogo
«for his seminal contributions to the theory and applications of statistics.»
«for his seminal contributions to the understanding of the biochemistry of DNA repair.»
Image of nothing.svg 2011 Dan McKenzie InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Geólogo «For his seminal contributions to the understanding of geological and geophysical phenomena including tectonic plates.»
John Ernest Walker.jpg 2012 John E. Walker
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química de 1997
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Químico «For his groundbreaking work on bioenergetics, discovering the mechanism of ATP synthesis in the mitochondrion.» [155]
Andre Geim 2010-1.jpg 2013 Andre Geim
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Física de 2010
Países BajosFlag of the Netherlands.svg Países Bajos Físico «For his numerous scientific contributions and, in particular, for initiating research on two‐dimensional atomic crystals and their artificial heterostructures.»
Alec Jeffreys.jpg 2014 Alec Jeffreys InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra genetista «For his pioneering work on variation and mutation in the human genome.» [156]
Higgs, Peter (1929)3.jpg 2015 Peter Higgs
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Física en 2013
InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Físico «For his fundamental contribution to particle physics with his theory explaining the origin of mass in elementary particles, confirmed by the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider.» [157]
Richard Henderson D81 4486 (38005042695).jpg 2016 Richard Henderson
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química en 2017
EscociaBandera de Escocia Escocia biólogo molecular y biofísico «In recognition of his fundamental and revolutionary contributions to the development of electron microscopy of biological materials, enabling their atomic structures to be deduced.» [158]
Andrew wiles1-3.jpg 2017 Andrew Wiles InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Matemático «For his beautiful and unexpected proof of Fermat's Last Theorem which is one of the most important mathematical achievements of the 20th century.» [159]
Image of nothing.svg 2018 Jeffrey I. Gordon Bandera de Estados Unidos Estados Unidos Biólogo «For his contributions to understanding the role of gut microbial communities to human health and disease.» [160]
John B. Goodenough (cropped).jpg 2019 John B. Goodenough
Nobel prize medal.svg Premio Nobel de Química en 2019
AlemaniaFlag of Germany.svg Alemania
(y estadounidense)
Físico «In recognition of his exceptional contributions to the science and technology of materials, including his discovery that led to rechargeable lithium batteries.» [161]
2020 Alan Fersht InglaterraBandera de Inglaterra Inglaterra Químico «He has developed and applied the methods of protein engineering to provide descriptions of protein folding pathways at atomic resolution, revolutionising our understanding of these processes.» [162]

Notas

  1. Two medals were awarded to celebrate the Society's 350th anniversary[154]
  1. «Copley Medal». En: The Royal Society.
  2. «Royal Medal». En: The Royal Society.
  3. a b «Oxford DNB article:Gray, Stephen (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  4. a b c «Oxford DNB article:Desaguliers, John Theophilus (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  5. «Oxford DNB article:Belchier, John (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  6. «Oxford DNB article:Hales, Stephen (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  7. «Oxford DNB article:Stuart, Alexander (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  8. «Oxford DNB article:Middleton, Christopher (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  9. «Oxford DNB article:Baker, Henry (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  10. «Oxford DNB article:Watson, Sir William (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  11. «Robins biography». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  12. a b Jungnickel, Christa; McCormmach, Russell (1996). Cavendish. American Philosophical Society. p. 71. ISBN 9780871692207. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  13. «Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics and You – Timeline – James Bradley». Florida State University. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  14. Jungnickel y McCormmach (1996)
  15. «RCP Heritage – George Edwards». Royal College of Physicians. Archivado desde el original el October 5, 2007. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009.  Parámetro desconocido |url-status= ignorado (ayuda)
  16. a b Jungnickel y McCormmach (1996)
  17. «Oxford DNB article:Pringle, Sir John (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  18. «Franklin_Benjamin biography». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  19. Science and Technology in the Industrial Revolution. Manchester University Press. 1969. ISBN 9780719003707. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  20. «Oxford DNB article:Huxham, John (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  21. «Oxford DNB article:Dollond family (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 15 de febrero de 2009. 
  22. «Engineering Timelines – John Smeaton». Engineering Timelines. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  23. «Oxford DNB article:Wilson, Benjamin (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  24. «The British Society for the History of Mathematics». British Society for the History of Mathematics. Consultado el 6 de febrero de 2009. 
  25. «AIM25 text-only browsing: Royal College of Surgeons of England Ellis, John (c 1710–1776)». Aim25. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  26. «Oxford DNB article:Woulfe, Peter». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  27. «Making and circulating knowledge through Sir William Hamilton's Campi Plhegraei» (PDF). The British Society for the History of Science. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  28. «Berkshire History: Biographies: Lieut-Col. John Walsh (1726–1795)». Nash Ford Publishing. 2004. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  29. «Maskelyne biography». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  30. a b «Stephen Hawking wins Copley Medal». Trinity College, Cambridge. Archivado desde el original el 5 de diciembre de 2008. Consultado el 7 de febrero de 2009.  Parámetro desconocido |url-status= ignorado (ayuda)
  31. «Hutton summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  32. a b c «Digital Collections – Manuscripts – Item 15a – 15z, 15(1) – 15(20): Addresses to the Royal Society, London the first on being appointed to the Chair and later addresses on presentations of the Copley Medal, 1778–1796.». National Library of Australia. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  33. «Friedrich William Herschel». Florida State University. Consultado el 7 de febrero de 2009. 
  34. «Waring summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  35. «William Roy». Electric Scotland. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  36. «John Hunter: 'Founder of Scientific Surgery' – HemOnc Today». HemOnc Today. Consultado el 8 de febrero de 2009. 
  37. «Oxford DNB article:Blagden, Charles (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  38. «Oxford DNB article:Morgan, William (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  39. a b «Copley Medal | Royal Society». royalsociety.org. The Royal Society. Consultado el 18 February 2015. 
  40. «Oxford DNB article: Thompson, Sir Benjamin (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 8 de febrero de 2009. 
  41. «Ramsden summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  42. «Attwood summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  43. «Oxford DNB article:Hatchett, Charles (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  44. «British Society for the History of Mathematics». University of Warwick. Consultado el 29 de enero de 2009. 
  45. Sears, Derek. «Edward Charles Howard». University of Arkansas. Archivado desde el original el 20 de marzo de 2009. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009.  Parámetro desconocido |url-status= ignorado (ayuda)
  46. «Cooper, Sir Astley Paston (1768–1841)». Aim25. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  47. «Wollaston». Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Consultado el 8 de febrero de 2009. 
  48. Griffith, WP. «PMR: Bicentenary of Four Platinum Group Metals». Platinum Metals Review. Archivado desde el original el 4 de julio de 2013. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009.  Parámetro desconocido |url-status= ignorado (ayuda)
  49. Griffith, WP. «PMR: Bicentenary of Four Platinum Group Metals». Platinum Metals Review. Archivado desde el original el 4 de julio de 2013. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009.  Parámetro desconocido |url-status= ignorado (ayuda)
  50. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n ñ o p q r s t u v w x «Oxford DNB theme: Holders of the Copley Medal (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 15 de febrero de 2009. 
  51. Darrow, GM. «Early Breeding in Europe». United States National Agricultural Library. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  52. «Troughton Summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 30 de enero de 2009. 
  53. Buchanan, W.W. (2003). «Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie (1783–1862)». Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (British Society for Rheumatology) 42 (5): 689-91. PMID 12709547. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keg002.  Parámetro desconocido |doi-access= ignorado (ayuda)
  54. «Ivory summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 30 de enero de 2009. 
  55. «Sir David Brewster (1781–1868)». University of St Andrews. Archivado desde el original el 4 de noviembre de 2008. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009.  Parámetro desconocido |url-status= ignorado (ayuda)
  56. «Henry Kater (1777–1835), Scientist». National Portrait Gallery. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  57. «SpringerLink – Book Chapter». Hans Christian Ørsted and the Romantic Legacy in Science (SpringerLink): 417-432. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-2987-5_19. 
  58. a b «Herschel summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 30 de enero de 2009. 
  59. «William Buckland & Reliquae Diluvianae». University of Minnesota. Consultado el 8 de febrero de 2009. 
  60. «The British Society for the History of Mathematics». The British Society for the History of Mathematics. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  61. «Arago summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 30 de enero de 2009. 
  62. «Lake County Astronomical Society». Lake County Astronomical Society. Archivado desde el original el June 4, 2008. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009.  Parámetro desconocido |url-status= ignorado (ayuda)
  63. The Gentleman's Magazine. The Gentleman's Magazine. 1832. p. 87. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. «Henry Foster copley medal.» 
  64. «Airy summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 30 de enero de 2009. 
  65. «Poisson summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 30 de enero de 2009. 
  66. «Plana biography». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  67. «Chambers Search Chambers». Chambers Harrap. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  68. «Gauss summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 8 de febrero de 2009. 
  69. «Oxford DNB article:Brown, Robert (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 15 de febrero de 2009. 
  70. Brock, William H. (2002). Justus Von Liebig: The Chemical Gatekeeper. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521524735. Consultado el 15 de febrero de 2009. 
  71. «Sturm summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 15 de febrero de 2009. 
  72. «Ohm biography». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 15 de febrero de 2009. 
  73. «MacCullagh summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  74. Morselli, Mario (1984). Amedeo Avogadro, a Scientific Biography. Springer. ISBN 978-90-277-1624-8. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  75. «Le Verrier biography». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  76. «Adams summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  77. «Own, Richard: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences». Wiley InterScience. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  78. «Humboldt – Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander – von – 1769–1859 – Baron – German naturalist, geologist and explorer». University of Edinburgh. Archivado desde el original el 23 de febrero de 2008. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009.  Parámetro desconocido |url-status= ignorado (ayuda)
  79. «BjS: Academic Lineage». Yale University. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  80. «Weber summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  81. «Darwin and the Copley Medal». American Philosophical Society. Archivado desde el original el December 16, 2005. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009.  Parámetro desconocido |url-status= ignorado (ayuda)
  82. «Adam Sedgwick Collection». American Philosophical Society. Archivado desde el original el 12 de mayo de 2008. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009.  Parámetro desconocido |url-status= ignorado (ayuda)
  83. «Chasles summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  84. «Plucker summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  85. «Helmholtz summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  86. Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science. Journal of Industrial Science. 1776. p. 13. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. «August Wilhelm Hofmann copley medal.» 
  87. «Jean Baptiste Boussingault». Journal of Nutrition. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  88. «Clausius summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  89. «Sylvester summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  90. «Cayley summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  91. «Thompson summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  92. «Neumann_Franz summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  93. «Salmon summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  94. «Newcomb summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  95. «Stokes summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  96. «Sir Edward Frankland, English chemist, c 1863–1883.». Science and Society Picture Library. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  97. «Weierstrass summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  98. «Rayleigh summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 3 de febrero de 2009. 
  99. «Gibbs summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  100. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n ñ o p q r s t u v w x y z aa «Oxford DNB theme: Holders of the Copley Medal». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 15 de febrero de 2009. 
  101. «Klein summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  102. «Obituary: Edwin Ray Lankester». National Marine Biological Laboratory. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  103. «Notes and Records of the Royal Society». Royal Society Publishing. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  104. «Obituary notice: Horace Tabberer Brown». Biochemical Journal. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  105. «Larmour summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  106. «Lamb summary». University of St Andrews. Consultado el 5 de febrero de 2009. 
  107. «Oxford DNB article: Hopkins, Sir Frederick (subscription needed)». Oxford University Press. 2004. Consultado el 15 de febrero de 2009. 
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