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1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (dominical letter C) of the Gregorian calendar, the 1943rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 943rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 43rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1940s decade.
Below, events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix.
- February 2 – WWII: In Russia, the Battle of Stalingrad comes to an end with the surrender of the German 6th Army.
- February 3 – WWII: The Four Chaplains of the U.S. Army are among those drowned when their ship, Dorchester, is struck by a German torpedo in the North Atlantic.
- February 5 – Lt. General Frank M. Andrews is selected to command the U.S. armies in Europe, while General Dwight D. Eisenhower is assigned command in North Africa; General Andrews will serve only three months before dying in an airplane crash.
- February 7 – WWII:
- North Atlantic convoy SC 118 is attacked by U-boats, sinking eight ships.
- In the United States, it is announced that shoe rationing will go into effect in 2 days.
- February 9 – WWII:
- February 10–March 3 – Mohandas Gandhi (under arrest by forces of the British Raj in Pune as a member of the Quit India Movement) keeps a hunger strike to protest at his imprisonment.
- February 14 – WWII: Rostov-on-Don in Russia is liberated.
- February 14–17 – WWII: Battle of Sidi Bou Zid: In the Tunisia Campaign, German Panzer divisions commanded by Hans-Jürgen von Arnim are victorious over the United States Army.
- February 16 – WWII: The Soviet Union reconquers Kharkov, but is later driven out in the Third Battle of Kharkov.
- February 18
- February 19–25 – WWII: Battle of Kasserine Pass: German General Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps and other Axis forces launch an offensive against Allied defenses in Tunisia; it is the United States' first major battle defeat of the war. On February 22 an Anglo-American force halts the German advance near Thala, forcing the Germans to retreat, US bombers harass the retreating Panzers.
- February 20
- February 21 – WWII: North Atlantic convoy ON 166 is attacked by U-boats sinking eleven ships.
- February 22 – Members of White Rose are executed in Nazi Germany.
- February 23–24 – Cavan Orphanage Fire: 35 girls and a cook from St Joseph's Orphanage, an industrial school at Cavan, Ireland, are killed in a fire in their dormitories. A subsequent inquiry absolves the Poor Clares of blame.
- February 27 – Smith Mine disaster: an explosion at Smith Mine #3 in Bearcreek, Montana, United States kills 74 coal miners.
- February 28 – Operation Gunnerside: 6 Norwegians led by Joachim Rønneberg successfully attack the heavy water plant at Vemork.
- March – Publication in New York of exiled French aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's self-illustrated children's novella The Little Prince, the all-time best-selling book originated in French.
- March–December – History of computing hardware: Construction of British prototype Mark I Colossus computer, the world's first totally electronic programmable computing device, to assist in cryptanalysis of German signals at Bletchley Park.
- March 1 – Heinz Guderian becomes the Inspector-General of the Armoured Troops for the German Army.
- March 1 –2 – WWII: Koriukivka massacre – Mass murder of the inhabitants of Koriukivka in the Ukraine by German SS troops.
- March 2 – WWII: Battle of the Bismarck Sea – United States and Australian forces sink Japanese convoy ships.
- March 3 – 173 people are killed in a crush while trying to enter an air-raid shelter at Bethnal Green, London.
- March 4 – The 15th Academy Awards ceremony is held in Los Angeles. Mrs. Miniver wins the Best Picture award.
- March 5 – The Gloster Meteor, the first operational military jet aircraft for the Allies, has its first test flight, in England.
- March 6 – WWII: North Atlantic convoy SC 121 is attacked by U-boats sinking seven ships.
- March 9 – Şükrü Saracoğlu forms the new government of Turkey (14th government; Şükrü Saracoğlu had served twice as a prime minister).
- March 10 – Banco Bradesco is founded in Marília, São Paulo, Brazil.
- March 13 – The Holocaust: Nazi German forces liquidate the Jews of the Kraków Ghetto in Occupied Poland.
- March 14 – WWII: British submarine HMS Thunderbolt is sunk off Sicily by an Italian corvette, the second time this vessel has been lost with all hands.
- March 15 – WWII:
- March 16–19 – WWII: 22 ships from Convoys HX 229/SC 122 and one U-boat are sunk in the largest North Atlantic U-boat "wolfpack" attack of the war.
- March 17 (Saint Patrick's Day) – Éamon de Valera, Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, makes the speech "The Ireland That We Dreamed Of", commonly called the "comely maidens" speech, in Dublin Castle.
- March 22 – WWII: Khatyn massacre – The entire population of Khatyn in Belarus is burnt alive by the German occupation forces.
- March 23 – The drugs Vicodin and Lortab are first produced in Germany.
- March 26 – WWII: Battle of the Komandorski Islands: In the Aleutian Islands, the battle begins when United States Navy forces intercept Japanese troops attempting to reinforce a garrison at Kiska.
- March 27 – WWII: British Royal Navy escort carrier HMS Dasher (D37) is destroyed by an accidental explosion in the Firth of Clyde, killing 379 of the crew of 528.
- March 28 – In Italy a ship full of weapons and ammunition explodes in the port of Naples, killing 600.
- March 31 – Rodgers and Hammerstein's Oklahoma! opens on Broadway, heralds a new era in "integrated" stage musicals, becomes an instantaneous stage classic, and goes on to be Broadway's longest-running musical up to that time (1948).
- June 1 – BOAC Flight 777, a DC-3 with registration G-AGBB (formerly KLM PH-ALI, Ibis), on a scheduled passenger flight, is shot down over the Bay of Biscay by eight German Junkers Ju 88s; all 17 persons aboard perish, including the actor Leslie Howard. There is speculation that the downing was an attempt to kill the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Winston Churchill, as the Germans may have had wrong information he was aboard.
- June 3 – The Zoot Suit Riots erupt between military personnel and Mexican American youths in East Los Angeles.
- June 4 – A military coup d'état in Argentina ousts Ramón Castillo.
- June 8 – WWII: Japanese battleship Mutsu is destroyed by an accidental magazine explosion in Hashirajima anchorage
- June 20 – Race riots in Detroit: killed 34 people — 25 African Americans, nine whites — wounded hundreds more and damaged and destroyed property worth millions.
- June 21 – WWII: British saboteurs blow up the strategically significant railway viaduct at Asopos in Greece.
- June 22 – WWII: The U.S. Army 45th Infantry Division lands in North Africa, prior to training at Arzew, French Morocco.
- June 30 – United States Civilian Conservation Corps abolished.
- June (late) – The Holocaust: The last trainload of Jewish prisoners is moved from Bełżec extermination camp in Occupied Poland (for gassing at Sobibór) and for the remainder of the year the Nazis make efforts to obliterate the site.
The first Lebanese flag
hand drawn and signed by the deputies of the Lebanese parliament, November 11, 1943. The French Mandate
ends and Lebanon
gains independence in November 1943.
- November 1 – WWII: Operation Goodtime: United States Marines land on Bougainville Island in the Solomon Islands.
- November 2 – WWII:
- November 5 WWII: First Bombing of the Vatican: Four bombs are dropped on the neutral Vatican City; the aircraft responsible is never certainly identified.
- November 9 – Agreement for foundation of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration signed by 44 countries in the White House, Washington, D.C.
- November 10 – Execution of the Lübeck martyrs, four men of religion, for supposedly treasonable views.
- November 14 – Leonard Bernstein, substituting at the last minute for ailing principal conductor Bruno Walter, directs the New York Philharmonic in its regular Sunday afternoon broadcast concert over CBS Radio. The event receives front-page coverage in The New York Times the following day.
- November 15 – Porajmos: German SS leader Heinrich Himmler orders that Gypsies and "part-Gypsies" be put "on the same level as Jews and placed in Nazi concentration camps."
- November 16
- November 18 – WWII: Battle of Berlin – The British Royal Air Force opens its bombing campaign against Berlin with 440 planes causing only light damage and killing 131. The RAF loses 9 aircraft and 53 aviators.
- November 19 – The Holocaust: Inmates of Janowska concentration camp near Lwów (at this time in German-occupied Poland), stage a failed uprising, after which the SS liquidates the camp, resulting in at least 6,000 deaths.
- November 20 – WWII: Battle of Tarawa: United States Marines land on Tarawa and Makin atolls in the Gilbert Islands (Kiribati from 1979) and take heavy fire from Japanese shore guns.
- November 22 –26 – WWII: Cairo Conference ("Sextant") – President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill and Chairman of the National Government of China Chiang Kai-shek meet at Cairo in Egypt to discuss ways to defeat Japan in the Pacific War.
- November 22 – Lebanon gains independence on ending of the French Mandate.
- November 23 – The Deutsches Opernhaus on Bismarckstraße in the Berlin district of Charlottenburg is destroyed in an air raid (It is reopened in 1961 as the Deutsche Oper Berlin).
- November 25 – WWII: Americans and Japanese fight the naval Battle of Cape St. George between Buka and New Ireland.
- November 28 – WWII: Tehran Conference: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran to discuss war strategy. On November 30, they establish an agreement concerning a planned June 1944 invasion of Europe codenamed Operation Overlord.
- November 29 – The second session of AVNOJ, the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia, is held in Jajce, Bosnia and Herzegovina, to determine the post-war ordering of the country.
- January 1
- January 2 – Barış Manço, Turkish singer and television personality (d. 1999)
- January 4 – Doris Kearns Goodwin, American writer
- January 6 – Terry Venables, English football manager
- January 7 – Sadako Sasaki, Japanese atomic bomb sickness victim (d. 1955)
- January 9 – Freddie Starr, English comedian and singer
- January 10 – Jim Croce, American surburbia musician (d. 1973)
- January 11 – Jim Hightower, American radio host and author
- January 13 – Richard Moll, American television actor
- January 14
- January 15 – Dame Margaret Beckett, British politician
- January 18 – Kay Granger, American politician
- January 19
- January 20 – Mel Hague, English singer and author
- January 22
- January 24
- January 25
- January 26 – César Gutiérrez, Venezuelan Major League Baseball player (d. 2005)
- January 28 – John Beck, American actor
- January 29
- February 2 – Erkan Geniş, Turkish artist
- February 3 – Blythe Danner, American actress
- February 4 – Alberto João Jardim, Portuguese politician
- February 5
- February 8 – Creed Bratton, American actor and musician
- February 9
- February 12 – Wacław Kisielewski, Polish pianist (d. 1986)
- February 14 – Maceo Parker, American musician (James Brown, P-Funk)
- February 15 – Elke Heidenreich, German author, TV presenter and journalist
- February 18 – Graeme Garden, Scottish writer, comedian, and actor
- February 19
- February 20
- February 21 – David Geffen, American record executive and film producer
- February 22 – Horst Köhler, President of the Federal Republic of Germany
- February 23 – Fred Biletnikoff, American football player and coach
- February 24 – Hristo Prodanov, Bulgarian mountaineer
- February 25 – George Harrison, British singer and guitarist (The Beatles) (d. 2001)
- February 26 – Bill Duke, American actor and director
- February 27 – Morten Lauridsen, American composer
- February 28 – Donnie Iris, American rock singer and guitarist (The Jaggerz, Wild Cherry, Donnie Iris and the Cruisers)
- April 2 – Caterina Bueno, Italian singer (d. 2007)
- April 3 – Hikaru Saeki, Japanese admiral, the first female star officer of the Japan Self-Defense Forces
- April 5 – Max Gail, American actor
- April 8 – Miller Farr, American football player
- April 10
- April 11 – Harley Race, American professional wrestler
- April 16 – Petro Tyschtschenko, German businessman
- April 19 – Claus Theo Gärtner, German actor
- April 20 – John Eliot Gardiner, English conductor
- April 22 – Louise Glück, American poet and 12th US Poet Laureate
- April 23
- April 24 – Richard Sterban, American singer (The Oak Ridge Boys)
- April 25
- April 28 – John O. Creighton, American astronaut
- April 30 – Frederick Chiluba, former President of Zambia (d. 2011)
- May 1 – Vassal Gadoengin, Nauruan politician (d. 2004)
- May 5 – Michael Palin, English comedian and television presenter
- May 6 – Grange Calveley, British writer and artist
- May 10 – Richard (Dick) Darman, American federal government official and businessman
- May 13 – Kurt Trampedach, Danish artist
- May 14
- May 17 – Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin, King of Malaysia
- May 22 – Betty Williams, Northern Irish political activist, co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
- May 25 – Jessi Colter, American singer and composer
- May 26 – Erica Terpstra, Dutch swimmer, politician and president of the Dutch Olympic Committee
- May 27
- May 30 – James Chaney, American civil rights worker (d. 1964)
- May 31
- June 1
- June 2 – Ilayaraaja, Indian composer
- June 3 – John Burgess, Australian game show host and actor
- June 4 – Joyce Meyer, Christian author and speaker
- June 6 – Richard Smalley, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2005)
- June 7
- June 8 – Colin Baker, British actor
- June 13 – Malcolm McDowell, British actor
- June 14 – Jim Sensenbrenner, American politician
- June 15
- June 16 – Joan Van Ark, American actress
- June 17
- June 18 – Barry Evans, English actor (d. 1997)
- June 21 – Marika Green French-Swedish actress
- June 22 – Klaus Maria Brandauer, Austrian actor
- June 23
- June 26 – John Beasley, American actor
- June 27 – Rico Petrocelli, baseball player
- June 28
- June 29
- June 30 – Ahmed Sofa, Bangladeshi writer (d. 2001)
- July 1 – Jeff Wayne, American musician
- July 3
- July 4
- July 5 – Curt Blefary, American baseball player (d. 2001)
- July 7 – Joel Siegel, American film critic (d. 2007)
- July 8 – Guido Marzulli, Italian painter
- July 9 – Soledad Miranda, Spanish actress (d. 1970)
- July 10 – Arthur Ashe, American tennis player (d. 1993)
- July 12
- July 15 – Jocelyn Bell Burnell, British astrophysicist
- July 16
- July 19
- July 20
- July 21
- July 23
- July 25 – Erika Steinbach, German politician
- July 26 – Mick Jagger, English rock singer
- July 28 – Richard Wright, British musician (Pink Floyd) (d. 2008)
- August 2 – Max Wright, American actor
- August 3 – Clarence Wijewardena, Sri Lankan musician (d. 1996)
- August 4 – Barbara Saß-Viehweger, German politician, lawyer and civil law notary
- August 4 – Bjørn Wirkola, Norwegian ski jumper
- August 5 – Nelson Briles, American baseball player (d. 2005)
- August 6 – Jim Hardin, former Baltimore Orioles, New York Yankees and Atlanta Braves pitcher (d. 1991)
- August 9 – Ken Norton, American boxer and actor (d. 2013)
- August 11
- August 13 – Roberto Micheletti, President of Honduras
- August 17
- August 18 – Gianni Rivera, Italian footballer
- August 20 – Sylvester McCoy, British actor
- August 23
- August 27 – Tuesday Weld, American actress
- August 28
- August 29 – Arthur B. McDonald, Canadian astrophysicist, Nobel Prize laureate
- August 30
- August 31 – Leonid Ivashov, Russian general
- September 1 – Don Stroud, American actor and surfer
- September 3 – Valerie Perrine, American actress and model
- September 5 – Dulce Saguisag, Filipino politician and former DSWD Secretary (d. 2007)
- September 6
- September 7 – Lena Valaitis, Lithuanian-German Schlager singer
- September 9 – Art LaFleur, American actor
- September 10
- September 11
- September 13 – Mildred D. Taylor, American writer
- September 14 – Irwin Goodman, Finnish singer (d. 1991)
- September 16 – Oskar Lafontaine, German politician
- September 19 – Joe Morgan, American Hall of Fame baseball player
- September 22 – Toni Basil, American musician and video artist
- September 23 – Julio Iglesias, Spanish singer and songwriter
- September 28 – J. T. Walsh, American actor (d. 1998)
- September 29
- September 30
- October 1 – Jean-Jacques Annaud, French film director
- October 2 – Franklin Rosemont, American poet (d. 2009)
- October 6 – Michael Durrell, American actor
- October 7 – Oliver North, American military officer, military historian, political commentator, author and television host
- October 8 – Chevy Chase, American comedian and actor
- October 11 – John Nettles, English actor and writer
- October 14 – Lois Hamilton, American model, actress and artist (d. 1999)
- October 15 – Penny Marshall, American actress, director and producer
- October 16 – Paul Rose, Canadian terrorist
- October 18
- October 20 – Noreen Corcoran, American child actress and director (d. 2016)
- October 22 – Catherine Deneuve, French actress
- October 27 – Carmen Argenziano, American actor
- October 28 – Cornelia Froboess, German actress
- October 29 – Don Simpson, American film producer, screenwriter, and actor (d. 1996)
- October 31 – Paul Frampton, English physicist
- November 1 – Jacques Attali, French economist
- November 3 – Bert Jansch, Scottish folk musician (d. 2011)
- November 4
- November 5
- November 7
- November 11 – Doug Frost, Australian swimming coach
- November 12 – Wallace Shawn, American actor
- November 13
- November 14
- November 17 – Lauren Hutton, American actress and model
- November 19 – Aurelio Monteagudo, Cuban Major League Baseball player (d. 1990)
- November 20
- November 21 – Larry Mahan, American rodeo cowboy
- November 22
- November 23 – Denis Sassou Nguesso, President of the Republic of the Congo
- November 24 – Dave Bing, American mayor and longtime NBA player
- November 26 – Marilynne Robinson, American writer
- November 28 – Randy Newman, American musician
- December 2
- December 5 – Eva Joly, Norwegian-born French magistrate
- December 8
- December 11 – John Kerry, American politician, longtime Massachusetts Senator (1985-2013), 2004 Democratic nominee for president, and current U.S. Secretary of State
- December 12
- December 13 – Ferguson Jenkins, Canadian baseball player
- December 15 – Lucien den Arend, Dutch sculptor
- December 17 – Ron Geesin, British musician and songwriter (Pink Floyd)
- December 18 – Keith Richards, English rock guitarist and songwriter
- December 19
- December 20 – Jacqueline Pearce, English actress
- December 21 – Jack Nance, American actor (d. 1996)
- December 23
- December 24
- December 25 – Hanna Schygulla, German actress
- December 28
- December 31
- January 3 – Bid McPhee, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1859)
- January 4 – Jerzy Iwanow-Szajnowicz, Greek-Polish athlete and resistance member (b. 1911)
- January 5 – George Washington Carver, African-American botanist (b. 1864)
- January 7 – Nikola Tesla, Serbian-American electrical engineer and inventor (b. 1856)
- January 8 – Richard Hillary, Battle of Britain Spitfire pilot, author (The Last Enemy; b. 1919)
- January 11 – Agustín Pedro Justo, 23rd President of Argentina (b. 1876)
- January 12 – Jan Campert, Dutch journalist and writer (Neuengamme concentration camp; b. 1902)
- January 13 – Henner Henkel, German tennis champion (b. 1915)
- January 15 – Eric Knight, American author (b. 1897)
- January 20 – Baron Max Wladimir von Beck, former Ministers-President of Austria (b. 1854)
- January 21 – Robert Henry English, American admiral (b. 1888)
- January 23 – Alexander Woollcott, American critic (b. 1887)
- January 26 – Nikolai Vavilov, Russian and Soviet botanist and geneticist (b. 1887)
- January 29
- March 6 – Jimmy Collins, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1870)
- March 9 – Otto Freundlich, German painter and sculptor (b. 1878)
- March 10 – Tully Marshall, American actor (b. 1864)
- March 19 – Frank Nitti, Italian-American gangster (suicide) (b. 1886)
- March 20 – Heinrich Zimmer, German Indologist and historian (b. 1890)
- March 27 – George Monckton-Arundell, 8th Viscount Galway, English politician, 5th Governor-General of New Zealand (b. 1882)
- March 28
- March 31 – Pavel Milyukov, Russian politician, founder and leader of the Constitutional Democratic Party (b. 1859)
- April 3 – Conrad Veidt, German actor (b. 1893)
- April 7 – Alexandre Millerand, French president (b. 1859)
- April 8
- April 9 – Philip Slier, Dutch Jewish typesetter (in Sobibór extermination camp) (b. 1923)
- April 13 – Oskar Schlemmer, German painter, sculptor, designer and choreographer (b. 1888)
- April 18 – Isoroku Yamamoto, Japanese admiral (b. 1884)
- April 24
- April 30 – Beatrice Webb, English sociologist, economist, historian and social reformer (b. 1858)
- May 1 – Johan Oscar Smith, Norwegian Christian leader, founder of Brunstad Christian Church (b. 1871)
- May 3 – Frank Maxwell Andrews, American general (plane crash) (b. 1884)
- May 7 – Fethi Okyar, former prime minister of Turkey (b. 1880)
- May 17
- May 19 – Kristjan Raud, Estonian painter and drawer (b. 1865)
- May 20 – John Stone Stone, American physicist and inventor (b. 1869)
- May 22 – Helen Taft, wife of U.S. President William Howard Taft (b. 1861)
- May 26 – Edsel Ford, American buinessman, president of Ford Motor Company (b. 1893)
- May 29 – Yasuyo Yamasaki, Imperial Japanese Army officer (killed in action) (b. 1891)
- May 31 – Helmut Kapp, German Gestapo official
- December 1 – Damrong Rajanubhab, Thai prince and historian (b. 1862)
- December 9 – Georges Dufrénoy, French post-impressionnist painter (b. 1870)
- December 14 – John Harvey Kellogg, American doctor (b. 1852)
- December 15 – Fats Waller, African-American jazz pianist (b. 1904)
- December 20 – Edward L. Beach, Sr., American naval officer and author (b. 1867)
- December 22 – Beatrix Potter, British children's author and illustrator (b. 1866)
- December 25 – William Irving, German-born American film actor (b. 1893)
- December 26 – Erich Bey, German admiral (killed in action in Battle of the North Cape) (b. 1898)
- December 27 – Rupert Julian, New Zealand actor and director (b. 1879)
- December 30 – Hobart Bosworth, American film actor, director, writer, and producer (b. 1867)
- ^ Waters, John M. Jr., CAPT USCG (December 1966). "Stay Tough". United States Naval Institute Proceedings.
- ^ "The Eruption of Parícutin (1943-1952)". How Volcanoes Work. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- ^ "Parícutin, Mexico". Volcano World. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- ^ "Parícutin: The Birth of a Volcano". Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- ^ Rohwer, J.; Hummelchen, G. (1992). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939-1945. Naval Institute Press. p. 194. ISBN 1-55750-105-X.
- ^ Copeland, B. Jack, ed. (2006). Colossus: the Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-284055-4.
- ^ Rohwer, J.; Hummelchen, G. (1992). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939-1945. Naval Institute Press. p. 196. ISBN 1-55750-105-X.
- ^ "HMS Thunderbolt (N 25)". uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-10-21.
- ^ Warren, C. E. T.; Benson, James (1958). "The Admiralty regrets ...": the story of His Majesty's submarine Thetis and Thunderbolt. London: Harrap.
- ^ How LSD Originated, Albert Hofmann.
- ^ Bombing of Aberdeen, news.stv.tv; accessed 6 December 2014.
- ^ "Los Angeles Zoot Suit Riots", in LosAngelesAlmanac.com.
- ^ Arad, Yitzhak (1999). Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 371. ISBN 0-253-21305-3.
- ^ "Belzec". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on January 7, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-15.
- ^ Photos from a city in turmoil, life.time.com; accessed December 4, 2014.
- ^ "Badolgio Declares Rome An 'Open City', Pittsburgh Press, August 15, 1943, p. 1
- ^ Muggenthaler, August Karl (1977). German Raiders of WWII. Prentice-Hall. p. 276. ISBN 0-13-354027-8.
- ^ "HMS Eclipse, destroyer". naval-history.net. Retrieved 2013-01-15.
- ^ Infield, Glenn B. (1967). Disaster at Bari.
- ^ "December 3rd, 1943". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
- ^ "Year by Year 1943" – History Channel International.
- ^ [Schriften der Königsberger Gelehrten-Gesellschaft: Geisteswissenschaftliche Klasse; 18,2 (trans: "Writings of the Königsberg Scholarly Society: Spiritual Scientific Class No. 18.2")]: (Halle ["Halle an der Saale"]: M. Niemeyer, 1943.)